Month: June 2023


The most challenging aspect of weight loss is keeping it off. The evidence points to this conclusion. Some scientists think that the body always returns to a certain weight. Your body may attempt to regain any lost weight if you lose it.

The set point idea has some support, but there are other factors that affect weight reduction as well. Furthermore, studies demonstrate that it is possible to reduce weight and keep it off.

You are succeeding! You’re consuming fewer calories. You’re working out. However, your scale doesn’t appear to appreciate your effort. Or maybe it did, briefly. However, despite your best efforts, your weight has remained constant recently. Or even more annoyingly, it keeps rising.

It’s an all too typical situation. However, you are not alone. And you are not to blame.

Marcio Griebeler, MD, an endocrinologist and obesity specialist, explains that in the past, people believed that losing weight could be achieved by increasing exercise or reducing calorie intake. Obesity, however, is an illness. It is a malfunction of physiology. Your body will work in a number of different ways to defend itself and prevent you from losing weight.

Several factors may alter body weight, according to a reliable source. Inherited characteristics, the environment, as well as hormonal, psychological, and genetic factors, all influence weight. The difference between the energy used and the calories consumed affects weight as well.

The set point model is based on the idea that there is a genetic weight range that is predetermined and influenced by biological signals. Your body has a regulatory mechanism that maintains you at a set point, or steady-state level.

Your brain’s hypothalamus receives signals from your fat cells. At specific periods, hormones like leptin, which controls appetite, and insulin are released. A variety of cues influence the continual up-and-down adjustments in your metabolism.


Your set point weight is determined by a variety of variables and is highly personal. According to specialists, your surroundings, genetics, and preferences are all important.

The set point is largely determined by the weight that your body has grown accustomed to.

“The set point is established over a long period of time,” claims Harrison. Although it’s a really complicated issue, it seems that your body is trying to manage itself by gaining or losing weight.

If you follow a diet, your body may attempt to regain your prior weight using the following mechanisms:

Physical systems: Your metabolism can slow down if you abruptly cut back on your calorie intake. This implies that your body expends less energy to perform the same tasks. The food you do eat does not burn as quickly as a result. Although you might temporarily lose weight, you’ll probably start gaining it back over time.

Your body may also make adjustments to the hormone levels that control your appetite and metabolism in an effort to get you back to your original weight. Additionally, it might change how you take in and utilize nutrients.

Mental systems: As you consume particular meals, your brain becomes accustomed to the pleasant feelings they produce. Your body will seek new meals or beverages to make up for the gaps left by those foods when you cut back on or eliminate them from your diet.

Harrison predicts that “people will find something else to satisfy them.” You can unknowingly reintroduce snack foods over time, or it might be a few glasses of wine a day.

Just a handful of the procedures that make losing weight so difficult are listed above.

For dieters, it can be particularly challenging, especially in the evening. Every system in your body is screaming, “I want this, I need this.” For you to succeed, there must be a means to overcome this, says Harrison.


According to set point theory, the body makes an effort to keep its weight within a desired range. Throughout their adult lives, many people maintain a body weight that falls within a relatively narrow range. While they are young, some people’s bodies may keep them thin, but as they get older, they may be able to put on weight.

According to the set point principle, your metabolism will slow down if you suddenly start eating fewer calories. Even if your activity level is the same, you will burn fewer calories. Additionally, your body might alter how it takes in nutrients. You may become more hungry as a result of changing hormones. These elements can make it simple for you to gain weight again.

‌Because there is no concrete evidence, the concept of a set point weight is only a notion. Researchers have noticed that many people tend to stay within a given weight range, yet it is challenging to conduct weight research on individuals. It’s challenging to regulate what people eat. The majority of research instead relies on self-reporting, which can be unreliable. ‌

If you have obesity, you are aware of the enormous difficulty in reducing weight and keeping it off.

The scientific reason for the occurrence is set point theory. According to this, your body puts up a fight to prevent you from losing weight. The underlying premise is that your body strives valiantly to maintain weight. And it believes it is helping you.

“What we frequently observe is that people may alter their food and exercise routines in an effort to shed weight, and they may initially succeed. However, their weight will then reach a ceiling and remain there, according to Dr. Griebeler. “That’s because reducing weight and altering your set point are two different things.


If your body aids in your weight increase when you have lost weight, shouldn’t it aid in your weight loss when you have gained weight? Why is it so simple to gain weight if our body has a system that controls body fat? These questions have been the focus of scientific research.

You should be able to reach a healthy weight through diet and exercise, right? At least, everyone seems to agree on that. Why then don’t you see results?

Your body resists losing weight, which is the problem. Additionally, it has several built-in safeguards to keep you at your predetermined spot.

Your body responds to weight loss efforts by producing more ghrelin hormones. They are the ones that give you a craving for food. Additionally, less leptin—the hormone that makes you feel full—is released.

Therefore, it’s not all in your head. Your body’s internal mechanisms are working against you as you diet by making you feel as though you need to eat more.

Dr. Griebeler observes that “fighting back against those hormones is very difficult.” “The fact that you’re hungry doesn’t mean you lack willpower. Because of a hormonal change, it will be quite challenging for you to maintain your diet over the long run.

Dieting alters not only your hormones but also how your body breaks down food.

The first step in weight loss is fat loss, according to Dr. Griebeler. “However, you burn fewer calories when you have less fat. It’s a downward spiral.

Furthermore, cutting calories can cause you to start losing muscle mass, which is equally harmful. Fat burns fewer calories than muscle does.

What do you have to show now after all your hard work? You have less muscle and less fat, which together reduce your ability to burn calories.


Several patterns of weight gain that scientists have noticed cannot be explained by set point theory. These patterns imply that a person’s life circumstances may have an equal impact on weight as the body’s set point. Science has determined that:

  • A lot of college students put on weight.
    Children with high television viewing habits are more likely to be overweight.
    Many people put on weight after getting married.
  • Less wealthy individuals in Western nations are more likely to be obese.
    After relocating from Asia to the West, people frequently gain weight.


According to recent studies, 20% of dieters are able to maintain their weight loss. People who have dropped at least 30 pounds and kept it off for at least a year are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. These people frequently respond to inquiries about how they avoid gaining the weight back.

According to the available evidence, people had better long-term weight loss results following a “medical trigger”—a warning about their health. Also,

Participants in the registry engaged in the following behaviours, which may help them maintain their weight loss:

  • They frequently weighed themselves every day.
  • Before they become significant increases, they battled tiny weight gains.
  • They typically ate cereal and fruit for breakfast.
  • They worked out for about an hour every day, frequently by walking.
  • They consumed a diet low in fat and calories.
  • Even on weekends and on holidays, they consistently followed their diet.

It’s common for people to attribute weight gain on a lack of willpower. Willpower has a tiny but significant impact on weight control, according to research. There are other, more crucial factors.




If you’re colour-blind, you see colours differently from the majority of people. Colour blindness frequently makes it challenging to distinguish between particular colours.

Colour blindness typically runs in families. Specialised glasses and contact lenses can help, but there is no cure. The majority of colour-blind people are adaptable and have little trouble going about their daily lives.


If you are colour blind, you may not be able to perceive colour at all or you may not be able to perceive particular colours the way most people do. Different colour vision issues are brought on by various types of colour blindness.


It might be challenging to distinguish between red and green when suffering from the most prevalent type of colour blindness.

Red-green colour blindness comes in 4 different forms:

  • The most prevalent kind of red-green colour blindness is deuteranomaly. It intensifies the red in green. This kind is modest and typically doesn’t interfere with daily activities.
  • Red appears less bright and greener due to protonomy. This kind is modest and typically doesn’t interfere with daily activities.
  • Both protanopia and deuteranopia completely impair your ability to distinguish between red and green.


It is challenging to distinguish between blue and green as well as between yellow and red when one has this less prevalent type of colour blindness.

Blue-yellow colour blindness comes in two varieties:

  • It is challenging to distinguish between yellow and red and blue and green due to tritanomaly.
  • You can’t distinguish between blue and green, purple and red, or yellow and pink if you have tritanopia. Colours also appear less vivid as a result.


You cannot see any colours if you are completely colour-blind. This is exceedingly rare and is also known as monochromacy. You might also have problems seeing clearly and be more sensitive to light, depending on the type.


Not seeing colours as most people do is the main sign of colour blindness. If you’re colour-blind, it could be challenging to see:

  • a distinction between colours
  • Different colour tones vary in their brightness.

The signs of colour blindness can frequently be so subtle that you might not even notice them. Many people who are colour blind are unaware of their condition since we grow accustomed to how colours appear to us.

Other symptoms, such as nystagmus or sensitivity to light, may also be present in those with very severe cases of colour blindness.


Compared to women, men are far more likely to be colour-blind. Having colour blindness is also more likely if you:

  • have a history of colour blindness in your family
  • have conditions that affect the eyes, such as glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • possess certain health issues, such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, or multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Take specific medications
  • being white

If you suspect that you may be colour-blind, discuss having a test done with your doctor.


The identification of colour blindness in youngsters can be challenging. Colourblind children might try to conceal their condition. However, if you’re worried about your child’s ability to read from a chalkboard or perform other tasks because of colour blindness, you should have them evaluated.

If there is a history of colour blindness in your family or if your child seems to be struggling with colour recognition, have them checked.

Ask the eye doctor to examine your child’s eyes. Additionally, you might be able to test your child at school.


The most prevalent types of colour blindness are hereditary, or inherited from one’s parents. Your colour vision won’t improve or deteriorate over time if your colour blindness is inherited.

If you have a condition or accident that affects your eyes or brain, you could develop colour blindness later in life.

On chromosomes, which are collections of genes, diseases like colour blindness are transferred from parents to their offspring.

The X and Y chromosomes are a couple of them, and they control whether you are a boy or a girl at birth. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The X chromosome is where the genes that might cause red-green colour blindness are handed down.

Men are more likely than women to have red-green colour blindness since it is X-chromosome-inherited. This is due to:

  • The sole X chromosome that males inherit from their mothers is. They will suffer red-green colour blindness if that X chromosome carries the red-green colour blindness gene rather than a normal X chromosome.
  • Two X chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father, are present in females. The gene for red-green colour blindness must be present on both X chromosomes in order to have the condition.

Both men and women are equally affected by blue-yellow colour blindness and full-colour blindness, which are inherited on other chromosomes.


Usually, a quick test performed by your eye specialist may determine whether you are colour-blind.

Your eye doctor will demonstrate the test to you by displaying a circle with a variety of coloured dots inside it. Inside the circle is a dot-based shape that resembles a number, letter, or wavy line. If you don’t have colour blindness, it’s simple to perceive this shape, but those who do have trouble seeing it are those who are colour blind.


The most typical kind of colour blindness test is this one. Your ophthalmologist will ask you to examine a pattern of coloured dots with a number or other object in the centre that is coloured differently. You can be colour-blind if you can’t see the form because it blends into the background. Colour blindness can be detected using various colour plates.


If you can match the brightness of two lights, you pass this exam. You will look at two different bright lights through an eyepiece. You’ll try to align the lights using knobs as you modify them. You might be colour-blind if you can’t match the brightness of the two lights.


You will encounter coloured blocks in a hue test. Your ophthalmologist will instruct you to arrange them in a rainbow pattern, for example, red to purple. You might suffer from a particular form of colour blindness if you have problems putting them in the right sequence. Eye specialists frequently provide this test to those who require an extremely accurate colour vision for their lines of work, such as photographers or designers.


Colour blindness that runs in families cannot be cured, but most people are able to adapt. Adults with colour blindness might not be able to perform some vocations, such as being a pilot or graphic designer, while children with colour blindness could need assistance with particular classroom tasks. Remember that colour blindness typically doesn’t result in significant issues.

If another medical issue is the source of your colour blindness, your doctor will treat that disease first. Your doctor may advise switching to a different medication or adjusting your dosage if the medication you’re taking makes you colourblind.

There are gadgets and technologies that can assist if colour blindness makes performing daily tasks difficult, such as:

  • contacts and glasses. People who are colour-blind may benefit from special contact lenses and eyewear that can distinguish between different hues of colour.
  • visual supports. You can live with colour blindness with the aid of visual aids, applications, and other technology. For instance, you could use an app to capture a photo on your phone or tablet, and then tap on a specific portion of the image to see what colour it is.

With your eye doctor, go over your alternatives. Keep in mind this advice:

  • Consult your physician about the use of technology and visual aids to assist you in doing daily duties.
  • Encourage family members to get a colour blindness screening because the condition can run in families.



Nearly one in seven Americans has an alcohol use disorder (AUD) at some point in their life, making it one of the most prevalent mental illnesses in the country. Men are around three to five times as likely as women to have an AUD.

However, because women are more susceptible to the negative effects of alcohol on the liver, heart, and brain, drinking can have major negative repercussions in this population. Given the same quantity of alcohol consumption, women also have greater blood alcohol levels than males, which is likely owing to sex variations in the way alcohol is transported across body tissues.


In the United States, alcohol misuse and dependency cause unimaginable suffering and are responsible for around 5% of all fatalities. Cirrhosis of the liver, which was the ninth-leading cause of mortality in the U.S. in 1988, is the primary health risk connected to AUDs. AUDs are linked to aggression, suicide, and auto accidents.

A different mental disease, including sadness, anxiety, or a personality problem, is frequently present in people with AUDs. Although attempts to “self-medicate” with alcohol by treating one of these other diseases can sometimes lead to AUDs, in many situations the AUD is the main, underlying disorder.

However, when a person has both a significant mood or anxiety condition and an AUD, both issues need to be treated.

What is “alcoholism”—the widely used but ill-defined term typically used to describe AUDs? Even among medical professionals, this has caused debate for many years. A growing body of evidence supports the theory that AUDs are caused by a complex interaction between biological and psychological variables.

Some varieties of AUDs appear to run in families and are at least partially influenced by genetic factors, while the precise role of heredity in AUDs is unknown. While it may not be appropriate to hold someone accountable for having an AUD, it is crucial to hold them accountable for seeking help.

Despite the fact that diabetes is a biological illness, diabetics are nonetheless expected to take their insulin as prescribed.


How can you tell whether you or a loved one has a significant drinking problem? The number of alcohol people really consume is not a good way to answer this. The assertion that “I can stop drinking whenever I want to” is also untrue.

The majority of chronic alcoholics have, at some point, abstained from alcohol for extended periods of time, but that does not guarantee they can manage the problem on their own: The abstinent alcoholic will almost always relapse unless they continue receiving therapy for substance abuse.

You should be on the lookout for an AUD if the subject:

  • Unintentionally consumes more alcohol than intended; for instance, if someone says, “I’m just going to have one for the road,” they may end up drinking five beers.
    consumes alcohol or spends a lot of time sobering up.
    has difficulty fulfilling major social, professional, or other duties.
    continues to use alcohol despite the fact that it frequently leads to health or mental issues.
  • Needs increasingly more alcohol to provide the same effect.
    When they stop drinking, they start to experience withdrawal symptoms (shaking, sweating, and “seeing things”).
    Frequently complains when people ask them about their drinking or have been informed that they have a drinking issue by a doctor, their work, or a family member.


If you’re otherwise healthy, occasionally consuming too much alcohol probably won’t have a negative long-term impact. But if you drink substantially on a regular basis, it’s a different story.

Most guys describe that as having four or more drinks per day, or 14 or 15 in a week. Heavy drinking for women is defined as having more than 3 drinks per day or 7–8 drinks per week.

You can suffer many physical and emotional side effects from drinking too much.


Alcohol is a toxin, and your liver’s function is to remove it from your system. But if you drink too much too quickly, your liver might not be able to keep up. Alcohol can damage liver cells and cause a scarring condition known as cirrhosis. An indicator that your liver isn’t functioning as it should is alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can be caused by long-term severe alcohol usage.

Alcoholic liver disease is a serious condition that can result from long-term alcohol addiction. Today, let’s discuss alcoholic liver illness. Alcoholic liver damage typically develops after years of excessive drinking.

The probability that you will acquire liver disease increases with the amount and length of alcohol misuse. Alcohol may result in hepatitis, which is characterized by liver enlargement and inflammation. This can eventually result in liver cirrhosis, the last stage of alcoholic liver disease, and liver scarring. Unfortunately, cirrhosis results in irreparable damage.


You may be aware of the risks associated with blood clots, excess body fat, and excessive cholesterol levels. Both are more likely when drinking. According to studies, those who drink heavily are also more likely to experience problems with their heart’s ability to pump blood and may be at an increased risk of developing heart disease.

On the other side, heavy drinking has a range of negative health effects, including cardiac issues. Drinking too much alcohol can cause excessive blood pressure, heart failure, or stroke. A condition that damages the heart muscle called cardiomyopathy can also be exacerbated by excessive drinking.

Alcohol can also lead to obesity and the myriad of health issues that come with it. Alcohol is a source of extra calories and a factor in weight growth, both of which have negative long-term effects.

The lesson here is one you probably already knew: if you choose to drink alcohol, limit your intake to moderate levels and avoid going overboard.


The neural connections in the brain are impacted by alcohol. You will find it more difficult to remember information, think properly, communicate clearly, make decisions, and move your body as a result. Dementia and despair are just two conditions that can be brought on by excessive drinking. Damage to your nerves could be unpleasant and last for a long time after you sober up.

Although alcohol can have an impact on different areas of the brain, it generally shrinks brain tissue, kills brain cells, and depresses the central nervous system. Long-term binge drinking can have a substantial negative impact on memory and cognition.

Alcohol interacts with brain receptors, obstructing nerve cell communication and reducing activity along excitatory neural pathways. Alcoholics have well-documented neuro-cognitive impairments, neuronal damage, and neurodegeneration; nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Direct and indirect effects are also possible.

In this review, we focused on how alcoholism affects the central nervous system and how it affects people’s health.


This occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough strong red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout your body. You could develop ulcers, inflammation, and other issues as a result. You may skip meals more frequently if you drink too much alcohol, depriving your body of iron.

Alcohol consumption has the potential to cause either an iron deficiency or abnormally high amounts of iron in the body, in addition to interfering with the proper absorption of iron into the hemoglobin molecules of red blood cells (RBCs).

Anaemia can develop from iron shortage, which is frequently brought on by substantial blood loss because iron is necessary for RBC function. Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common source of blood loss and subsequent iron deficiency in alcoholic patients.

However, iron deficiency in alcoholics is frequently difficult to identify because it may be covered up by signs of other nutritional deficiencies (such as folic acid insufficiency) or by the presence of concomitant liver disease and other inflammatory disorders brought on by alcohol.


Seek assistance if you believe you may have an alcohol problem. Speak to your physician, therapist, or expert on addiction. Find support groups online. Some people are successful at quitting the habit on their own. However, you might want to check out the local chapter of Alcoholics Anonymous if you feel like you need further assistance. Learn more about alcoholism treatment in outpatient settings.

Take the following actions to reduce your risk while drinking:

  • Don’t consume too much at once. If you choose to drink, doctors advise limiting your intake to no more than one drink for women and two for men every day.
  • More slowly, sip.
  • While drinking, eat something.
  • Replace alcoholic beverages with nonalcoholic alternatives. The best is water.
  • Plan beforehand. Be sure you know how you’ll get home securely and drink only with people you trust.


The program of AA goes beyond not drinking. Its objective is to bring about “an entire psychic change,” or spiritual awakening, in the alcoholic’s thinking in order to “bring about recovery from alcoholism.” The Twelve Steps are supposed to lead to a spiritual awakening, and helping AA or staying in regular contact with AA members will help you stay sober.

To comprehend and follow the AA program, members are advised to find an experienced fellow alcoholic, known as a sponsor. The sponsor should ideally be the same sex as the sponsored person, have completed all twelve steps, and refrain from imposing their personal beliefs on the sponsored person.

According to the helper therapy theory, sponsors in AA might gain from their interactions with their charges because “helping behaviors” are associated with higher abstinence rates and fewer instances of binge drinking.

The ideology of the Counter-Enlightenment is carried on in the AA program. According to AA, accepting one’s inherent limits is essential to determining one’s standing among other people and God.

These concepts are known as “Counter-Enlightenment” views because they go against the Enlightenment’s belief that people have the ability to create a paradise on Earth using their own will and reason. Sociologists David R. Rudy and Arthur L. Greil discovered that an AA member needs to maintain a high level of commitment to be sober after reviewing the literature and monitoring AA meetings for sixteen months.


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